.org - Wikipedia

.org – Wikipedia

Generic top-level area

The area identify org is a generic top-level area (gTLD) of the Area Title System (DNS) used within the Web. The identify is truncated from group. It was one of many unique domains established in 1985, and has been operated by the Public Curiosity Registry since 2003. The area was initially “meant because the miscellaneous TLD for organizations that did not match wherever else”.[1] It’s generally utilized by non-profit organizations, open-source tasks, and communities, however is an open area that can be utilized by anybody. The variety of registered domains in org has elevated from fewer than a million within the 1990s, to 10 million in 2012, and held regular between ten and eleven million since then.

In November 2019, the Public Curiosity Registry (PIR) was to be bought by the Web Society to shell firm Ethos Capital for US$1.135 billion.[2] The PIR additionally introduced it could abandon its non-profit standing to change into a B Company.[3] Nonetheless, this transfer was criticized by non-profits and varied digital rights teams on issues that Ethos Capital, a personal fairness agency, would elevate charges or censor the area. The sale was blocked by Web Company for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) in April 2020 on the premise that switch of management of the area to the non-public fairness agency would create “unacceptable uncertainty” for non-profits that relied on the org area.[4]

Historical past

The area “.org” was one of many unique top-level domains[5] and was established in January 1985. The opposite early top-level domains had been com, us, edu, gov, mil and web. It was initially meant for non-profit organizations or organizations of a non-commercial character that didn’t meet the necessities for different gTLDs. The MITRE Company was the primary group to register an org area with mitre.org in July 1985.[6] The TLD has been operated since January 1, 2003 by Public Curiosity Registry, who assumed the duty from VeriSign World Registry Providers, a division of Verisign.[7]

Registrations

Registrations of subdomains are processed by way of accredited registrars worldwide. Anybody can register a second-level area inside org, with out restrictions.[8][9] In some situations subdomains are getting used additionally by business websites, corresponding to craigslist.org. In line with the ICANN Dashboard (Area Title) report, the composition of the TLD is various, together with cultural establishments, associations, sports activities groups, spiritual, and civic organizations, open-source software program tasks, faculties, environmental initiatives, social, and fraternal organizations, well being organizations, authorized companies, in addition to golf equipment, and community-volunteer teams. In some instances subdomains have been created for disaster administration.[which?]

The variety of ORG domains registered with the Public Curiosity Registry.

Though organizations wherever on the earth could register subdomains, many nations, corresponding to Australia (au), Canada (ca), Japan (jp), Argentina (ar), Bolivia (bo), Uruguay (uy), Turkey (tr), Somalia (so), Sierra Leone (sl), Russia (ru), Bangladesh (bd), India (in) and the UK (uk), have established a second-level area with the same function beneath their ccTLD. Such second-level domains are often named org or or.[citation needed]

In 2009, the org area consisted of greater than Eight million registered domains,[10] 8.Eight million in 2010,[11] and 9.6 million in 2011.[12] The Public Curiosity Registry registered the ten millionth .ORG area in June, 2012.[13] When the 9.5 millionth second-level area was registered in December 2011, org turned the third largest gTLD.[14]

As of November 2019, in accordance with the Tranco rating of the highest 1M international domains,[15] domains beneath org had been about 6 % of the highest 1000 and seven % of the highest 100 thousand and 1 million domains.

Internationalized domains

The org area registry permits the registration of chosen internationalized domains (IDNs) as second-level domains.[16] For German, Danish, Hungarian, Icelandic, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, and Swedish IDNs this has been attainable since 2005. Spanish IDN registrations have been attainable since 2007.[9]

Area identify safety

On June 2, 2009, The Public Curiosity Registry introduced[17] that the org area is the primary open generic top-level area and the most important registry total that has signed its DNS zone with Area Title System Safety Extensions (DNSSEC). This enables the verification of the origin authenticity and integrity of DNS information by conforming DNS shoppers.

As of June 23, 2010, DNSSEC was enabled for particular person second-level domains,[18] beginning with 13 registrars.

Value of registration

Since 2003, the Public Curiosity Registry (PIR) charged its accredited registrars a capped worth of US$9.05 per 12 months[19] for every area identify. The registrars could set their fees to finish customers with out restrictions.

In April 2019, ICANN proposed an finish to the worth cap of org domains[20] and successfully eliminated it in July despite having acquired 3,252 opposing feedback and solely six in favor.[21] Just a few months later, the proprietor of the area, the Public Curiosity Registry, proposed to promote the area to funding agency Ethos Capital.[22]

References

  1. ^ RFC 1591: Area Title System Construction and Delegation, March 1994, retrieved 2021-01-28
  2. ^ “Ethos paid $1.135 billion for .Org: Web Society reveals the worth it’s promoting out for”. 2019-11-29. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  3. ^ “The Web Society & Public Curiosity Registry: A New Period of Alternative”. .ORG (Press launch). 2019-11-13. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  4. ^ Robertson, Adi (April 30, 2020). “ICANN votes down controversial .org sale proposal”. The Verge. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  5. ^ RFC 920, Area Necessities, J. Postel, J. Reynolds, The Web Society (October 1984)
  6. ^ Mitre.org
  7. ^ InterNIC – FAQs on org transition
  8. ^ ICANN High-Stage Domains (gTLDs), Retrieved 2011-03-31.
  9. ^ a b Purchase .ORG (Registrant) Common Questions, Retrieved 2001-10-25.
  10. ^ Ragan, Steve (March 12, 2012). “DNSSEC to change into commonplace on .ORG domains by finish of June”. The Tech Herald. Archived from the unique on January 3, 2019. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  11. ^ Berkens, Michael (February 14, 2011). “.ORG Grows Over 10% To Over 8.Eight Million Registrations”. The Domains. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  12. ^ Prestipino, Peter (February 16, 2012). “The .ORG Registry Grows 10 P.c”. Web site Journal. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  13. ^ Goldstein, David (July 12, 2012). “ORG Seventh TLD To Move Ten Millionth Registration Milestone”. DomainPulse. Archived from the unique on March 11, 2020. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  14. ^ “The PIR Dashboard” (PDF). The Public Curiosity Registry. Archived from the unique (PDF) on four August 2016. Retrieved four April 2012.
  15. ^ Le Pochat, Victor; Van Goethem, Tom; Tajalizadehkhoob, Samaneh; Korczynski, Maciej; Joosen, Wouter. “Tranco: A Analysis-Oriented High Websites Rating Hardened In opposition to Manipulation” (PDF). Community and Distributed Methods Safety (NDSS) Symposium 2019. doi:10.14722/ndss.2019.23386. ISBN 1-891562-55-X.
  16. ^ “Internationalized Area Title (IDN) Questions”. Public Curiosity Registry. Archived from the unique on 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2010-03-28.
  17. ^ Ajay D’Souza. “DNSSEC announcement in The .ORG Weblog“. Archived from the unique on 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
  18. ^ “Listing of .ORG registrars”. Archived from the unique on 2010-06-12. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
  19. ^ “Exhibit A–REGISTRATION FEES” (PDF). Public Curiosity Registry. Archived from the unique (PDF) on January 27, 2018. Retrieved Jan 16, 2018.
  20. ^ McCarthy, Kieren (26 Apr 2019). “Web trade freaks out over proposed limitless worth hikes on org domains”. The Register. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  21. ^ Lee, Timothy B. (2019-07-01). “ICANN eliminates org area worth caps regardless of lopsided opposition”. Ars Technica. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  22. ^ McCarthy, Kieren (20 Nov 2019). “Web world despairs as non-profit .org bought for $$$$ to non-public fairness agency, worth caps axed”. The Register. Retrieved 2019-11-23.

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